from: liff.cafa.edu.cn time: 2019.3.31
10:40-11:10 31/03/19 CM
Margot Jane Taylor
The role neuroimaging in understanding cognition in autism
Unravelling the neurodevelopmental bases of high level cognitive functions is critical to translational clinical work. A challenge has been to develop age- and disorder-appropriate neuroimaging tasks that assess complex social-cognitive difficulties. Furthermore, an essential component to understanding cognitive processes, is understanding how they emerge across development. I will review recent research using functional neuroimaging (fMRI and MEG), investigating cognitive and social processing from childhood to adulthood. I will present studies that include children, teenagers and adults with and without autism, and that also tackle important cognitive skills – working memory, emotional face processing and theory of mind. Studies that include resting state analyses and structural MRI will also be summarized. In combination, these investigations provide new insights on the functional and structural neural bases of the cognitive difficulties experienced by those with autism, how these change with age, and which we expect will help develop more targeted interventions.
11:10-11:40 31/03/19 CM
胡中凡 Jon-Fan Hu
An Introduction to New Techniques on Assessing Autistic Disorder
Understanding others is a lesson without a guidebook. Human beings must continuously gather information from surrounding environment. Especially carefully paying attention to the behaviors and emotions of other people during interaction or communication is important for learning and growth in developing individuals. Typical children can acquire principle social cognitive abilities to subserve the personal interactions by means of the ability of Theory of Mind, such as Joint Attention, Perspective Taking, Intention Detection, and Social Referencing. It is plausible that not only each of these abilities plays distinct roles but also they are closely interrelated for grasping successful social cognitive and affective competencies. To young autistic individuals, therefore, the status of their limited Theory of Mind function diagnosed by observation or questionnaires might be more complicated or unsure de facto. In face of this intractable issue, eye-tracking techniques are recently recognized useful to provide information in analyzing the crucial mental processes during the early ages. For instance, former study have found that autistic children turn their heads away from others who attempt to communicate with them. Previous research also have compared gazing trajectory between typical and autistic children, showing that eye gazes of autistic children are featured with quirky, purposeless, and unorganized. However, the eye movement patterns of normal children are rather strategic and they usually form a triangular visual trajectory while gazing at human face. On the other hand, some studies stated that autism have a pupil contraction response when staring at children’s face whereas pupils of normal children are relaxed. Above researches clearly offer an intriguing explanation that eye movement indeed could reflect partial underlying process of mentalization. Moreover, the facility is easy to operate and could reduce the discomfort that traditional cerebral angiography techniques may bring to young study participants. However, the massive amount of eye-movement data shall rely on advanced computational techniques to reveal the covered underlying mental properties. Thus, we propose a new research strategy in light of adopting appropriately designed visual materials to induce specific mental processes to reliably identify the representative patterns in differentiating typical vs. autistic children in terms of eye movements. Particularly, accompanying with the professional evaluation, the analyses of eye movement through Artificial Intelligence techniques are intended to empower the establishment of models offering unprecedented indexes of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in diagnosing and evaluating autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). After collecting a large amount of data, it is expected to apply these techniques to assist or partially replace human professions to efficiently and accurately pinpoint the foci of the syndrome.
11:40-12:10 31/03/19 CM
International Autism Institute as a system for organizing education and support
of the children with autism in Russia
俄罗斯自闭症研究的发展历史可以追溯到二十世纪二十年代。临床医师Grunya Sukhareva的科学研究为俄罗斯自闭症研究时代的发展奠定了基础，并成就了众多伟大的科学家（如S. S. Mnukhin，V。V. Lebedinsky，O。S. Nikolskaya，S。A. Morozov等）。俄罗斯对自闭症研究的发展使得自闭症儿童的诊断，矫正，发展与社会化理论的建立成为可能。作为俄罗斯建设自闭症人群援助系统的一个阶段工作，国际自闭症研究所（IAI）于2013年成立。它基于以Astafyev V.P.命名的克拉斯诺亚尔斯克州立师范大学设立。其初衷是团结世界上领先的自闭症研究力量。创建IAI的倡议得到了英国，美国，西班牙和比利时的知名专家的支持。
The history of development the autism research in Russia begins its calculation from the 20s of the twentieth century. The scientific researches of the clinical physician Grunya Sukhareva laid the foundation for the development of the era of autism research in Russia and formed a galaxy of great scientists (S. S. Mnukhin, V. V. Lebedinsky, O. S. Nikolskaya, S. A. Morozov, etc.). The genesis of the formation knowledge about autism in Russia allowed to create methodology of diagnostics, correction, development and socialization of children with autism. One of the stages of formation a system of assistance to people with autism in Russia is the creation the International Institute of Autism (IAI) in 2013. It is based on the Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after Astafyev V.P. Its purpose is to unite the worlds leading autism research. The initiative of creation the IAI was supported by leading experts from the UK, USA, Spain and Belgium.
The experience of developing ideas for an autism research initiative and the formation of an academic system for organizing comprehensive assistance to people with autism in Russia are presented. The report presents a scientific and practical model of the organization a system for training specialists to work with children with autism and their families at the university, as well as ideas for the development of scientific research on autism and the formation of a comprehensive support system.
Activity of the IAI KSPU attracted attention of scientists in many countries. Researchers from the National Autism Institute of China and the University of South Carolina in the United States proposed to consolidate efforts in the field of autism research and create an International Consortium of Autism Institutes (ICAI). This is a new academic structure that brings together leading scientific research in the field of autism around the world. All research projects are aimed at implementing the idea of an integrated approach: the connection of medical, psychological, pedagogical and social research, realizing the tasks of successful social integration of people with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders).
An important element of our complex system is creation of the scientific and practical center for the development of the personality “Grail”, in which practical work with children and adults with autism is realized.
Some research results are presented in the report: a model of the analysis ASD, some approaches of differential diagnostics of autism and similar conditions in childhood, some used effective technologies of diagnostics and correction. Diagnostic markers and an algorithm of developing psychology and pedagogical programs for correction of autism disorders are highlighted. In solving the problems of studying the mechanisms of ASD formation, were used clinical data, the collection of patient history data, the identification of aggravating factors from the heredity and course of the prenatal, natal and postnatal periods. Presents effective methods of art therapy for people with ASD.