ABOUT LIFF / << back
艺术治疗与特殊教育论坛
from: liff.cafa.edu.cn time: 2019.3.31
A-4
10:40-11:10 31/03/19 CM
Margot Jane Taylor
The role neuroimaging in understanding cognition in autism
Unravelling the neurodevelopmental bases of high level cognitive functions is critical to translational clinical work. A challenge has been to develop age- and disorder-appropriate neuroimaging tasks that assess complex social-cognitive difficulties. Furthermore, an essential component to understanding cognitive processes, is understanding how they emerge across development. I will review recent research using functional neuroimaging (fMRI and MEG), investigating cognitive and social processing from childhood to adulthood. I will present studies that include children, teenagers and adults with and without autism, and that also tackle important cognitive skills – working memory, emotional face processing and theory of mind. Studies that include resting state analyses and structural MRI will also be summarized. In combination, these investigations provide new insights on the functional and structural neural bases of the cognitive difficulties experienced by those with autism, how these change with age, and which we expect will help develop more targeted interventions.
A-5
11:10-11:40 31/03/19 CM
胡中凡 Jon-Fan Hu
應用AI進行檢測自閉症之新技術介紹
An Introduction to New Techniques on Assessing Autistic Disorder
瞭解他人是一項無人教授的功課。人類在一生當中必須不斷的從週遭的環境中獲取有助於瞭解他人的資訊。尤其是當個人在與他人進行互動或是溝通時,認真的將注意力投注在他人的行為和情緒表現上對於個人的學習與成長非常重要。正常發展的孩童能夠從中獲取重要的社會認知能力以促進在人際互動發展中相當關鍵的心智理論功能的發展,例如:參與式注意力,觀點取替,意圖偵測,以及社會參照等。近期公認為一有效探測心智運作的眼球追蹤技術,可能提供有效的數據以作分析幼小年齡個人關鍵的心智運行的歷程,並且作為相關理論和研究上的判準或證據。然而,眼球運動的大量數據則需要依賴先進的計算技術加以有效分析,以確認相對應的內在心智活動的歷程。在此,我們提出一項新的研究策略,是利用由合宜的視覺刺激組型所引發特定的社會認知運作數據,並且經過人工智能的分析後建立高素質的心智模型,以提供高度有效正確性,病症特定性,以及檢測敏感性的數據指標。此類模型並使用此領域專家之病症評定所得之資料,進行眼動數據形態之匹配工作以快速、有效率,且正確的錨碇自閉症核心心智運作缺損的原因所在,並且將可應用於協助與替代人為進行診斷的工作。

Understanding others is a lesson without a guidebook. Human beings must continuously gather information from surrounding environment. Especially carefully paying attention to the behaviors and emotions of other people during interaction or communication is important for learning and growth in developing individuals. Typical children can acquire principle social cognitive abilities to subserve the personal interactions by means of the ability of Theory of Mind, such as Joint Attention, Perspective Taking, Intention Detection, and Social Referencing. It is plausible that not only each of these abilities plays distinct roles but also they are closely interrelated for grasping successful social cognitive and affective competencies. To young autistic individuals, therefore, the status of their limited Theory of Mind function diagnosed by observation or questionnaires might be more complicated or unsure de facto. In face of this intractable issue, eye-tracking techniques are recently recognized useful to provide information in analyzing the crucial mental processes during the early ages. For instance, former study have found that autistic children turn their heads away from others who attempt to communicate with them. Previous research also have compared gazing trajectory between typical and autistic children, showing that eye gazes of autistic children are featured with quirky, purposeless, and unorganized. However, the eye movement patterns of normal children are rather strategic and they usually form a triangular visual trajectory while gazing at human face. On the other hand, some studies stated that autism have a pupil contraction response when staring at children’s face whereas pupils of normal children are relaxed. Above researches clearly offer an intriguing explanation that eye movement indeed could reflect partial underlying process of mentalization. Moreover, the facility is easy to operate and could reduce the discomfort that traditional cerebral angiography techniques may bring to young study participants. However, the massive amount of eye-movement data shall rely on advanced computational techniques to reveal the covered underlying mental properties. Thus, we propose a new research strategy in light of adopting appropriately designed visual materials to induce specific mental processes to reliably identify the representative patterns in differentiating typical vs. autistic children in terms of eye movements. Particularly, accompanying with the professional evaluation, the analyses of eye movement through Artificial Intelligence techniques are intended to empower the establishment of models offering unprecedented indexes of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in diagnosing and evaluating autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). After collecting a large amount of data, it is expected to apply these techniques to assist or partially replace human professions to efficiently and accurately pinpoint the foci of the syndrome.
A-6
11:40-12:10 31/03/19 CM
Elena Chereneva
国际自闭症研究所作为在俄提供自闭症儿童教育与援助之系统
International Autism Institute as a system for organizing education and support
of the children with autism in Russia
俄罗斯自闭症研究的发展历史可以追溯到二十世纪二十年代。临床医师Grunya Sukhareva的科学研究为俄罗斯自闭症研究时代的发展奠定了基础,并成就了众多伟大的科学家(如S. S. Mnukhin,V。V. Lebedinsky,O。S. Nikolskaya,S。A. Morozov等)。俄罗斯对自闭症研究的发展使得自闭症儿童的诊断,矫正,发展与社会化理论的建立成为可能。作为俄罗斯建设自闭症人群援助系统的一个阶段工作,国际自闭症研究所(IAI)于2013年成立。它基于以Astafyev V.P.命名的克拉斯诺亚尔斯克州立师范大学设立。其初衷是团结世界上领先的自闭症研究力量。创建IAI的倡议得到了英国,美国,西班牙和比利时的知名专家的支持。
本文介绍了自闭症研究倡议的想法的发展过程,以及为俄罗斯自闭症患者组织全面援助的学术体系的形成。该报告展示了建立一个在大学中培训专业人员帮助自闭症儿童及其家庭的系统的科学化可行化的模型,以及一些关于加强自闭症科学研究并建立综合援助系统的想法。
克拉斯诺亚尔斯克州立师范大学国际自闭症研究所的行动引来了很多国家的科学家的注意。来自中国国家自闭症研究所和美国南加州大学的研究员们提议整合自闭症领域的研究工作并建立国际自闭症研究联盟(ICAI),这将是一个整合了全世界自闭症研究领域顶尖力量的全新学术机构。所有的研究项目都将着重于推行一种整合理念:将医学,心理学,教育学和社会研究联系起来,实现ASD(自闭症谱系障碍)患者与社会的成功融合。
Grail人格培养科学实践中心Grail的设立是我们复杂系统的一个重要组成部分,中心使针对自闭症患者的实质工作得以开展。
部分研究成果可以在报告:《ASD的分析模型》,《自闭症及童年时期的类似症状的部分鉴别诊断方法》,《一些行之有效的诊断与矫正技术》中看到。文中特别强调了诊断参照物和一个用于开发矫正自闭症的心理及教学项目的算法。在尝试解决自闭症产生原因的难题时,我们参考了临床数据,病人历史以及在病人的遗传及出生前后的经历等先后天因素中识别而出的加重因素,从而得到了一系列有效的自闭症艺术理疗手段。

The history of development the autism research in Russia begins its calculation from the 20s of the twentieth century. The scientific researches of the clinical physician Grunya Sukhareva laid the foundation for the development of the era of autism research in Russia and formed a galaxy of great scientists (S. S. Mnukhin, V. V. Lebedinsky, O. S. Nikolskaya, S. A. Morozov, etc.). The genesis of the formation knowledge about autism in Russia allowed to create methodology of diagnostics, correction, development and socialization of children with autism. One of the stages of formation a system of assistance to people with autism in Russia is the creation the International Institute of Autism (IAI) in 2013. It is based on the Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after Astafyev V.P. Its purpose is to unite the world’s leading autism research. The initiative of creation the IAI was supported by leading experts from the UK, USA, Spain and Belgium.
The experience of developing ideas for an autism research initiative and the formation of an academic system for organizing comprehensive assistance to people with autism in Russia are presented. The report presents a scientific and practical model of the organization a system for training specialists to work with children with autism and their families at the university, as well as ideas for the development of scientific research on autism and the formation of a comprehensive support system.
Activity of the IAI KSPU attracted attention of scientists in many countries. Researchers from the National Autism Institute of China and the University of South Carolina in the United States proposed to consolidate efforts in the field of autism research and create an International Consortium of Autism Institutes (ICAI). This is a new academic structure that brings together leading scientific research in the field of autism around the world. All research projects are aimed at implementing the idea of ​​an integrated approach: the connection of medical, psychological, pedagogical and social research, realizing the tasks of successful social integration of people with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders).
An important element of our complex system is creation of the scientific and practical center for the development of the personality “Grail”, in which practical work with children and adults with autism is realized.
Some research results are presented in the report: a model of the analysis ASD, some approaches of differential diagnostics of autism and similar conditions in childhood, some used effective technologies of diagnostics and correction. Diagnostic markers and an algorithm of developing psychology and pedagogical programs for correction of autism disorders are highlighted. In solving the problems of studying the mechanisms of ASD formation, were used clinical data, the collection of patient history data, the identification of aggravating factors from the heredity and course of the prenatal, natal and postnatal periods. Presents effective methods of art therapy for people with ASD.