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艺术治疗与特殊教育论坛
from: liff.cafa.edu.cn time: 2019.3.31
A-1
9:00-9:30 31/03/19 CM
Emil C Toescu
探索光谱的基础
Exploring the bases of the spectrum

在1943年的临床定义中,孤独症现在被认为是一组复杂的行为变化,更准确地定义为“谱系障碍”。尽管有越来越丰富的临床描述,我们仍然对自闭症的病因知之甚少,遗传和环境因素的复杂组合导致了大脑的形态和功能变化,从而导致了行为(临床)表达。一些研究人员和认知行为学家强调自闭症患者的一些积极优势,尤其是轻度自闭症,但总的来说,自闭症谱系障碍(ASD),尤其是严重的自闭症,被认为是一种需要治疗和干预的疾病。要使这种干预有效,就需要对基本过程有良好的了解。在这个演讲中,我将尝试提供一个基本的神经科学基础的主要病理变化描述。其中一些是突触功能,这是一种重要的结构,它介导着信息从一个神经元传递到另一个神经元。另一个层次是理解调节大脑中信息传递的兴奋/抑制平衡的基础。最后,在功能层面来说,ASD被描述为大脑中不同区域之间的连接性的失调,其中一些区域的敏感度增加,而另一些区域的强度降低。希望这样的引物可以将对ASD的实验干预的后续讨论,举例来说,这就是艺术治疗的成功应用。

Clinically defined in 1943, autism is seen now as a complex set of behavioural changes, better defined as a “spectrum disorder”. Despite richer and richer clinical descriptions, we still know very little about the causes of autism, with an elaborate combination of genetic and environmental factors contributing to the morphological and functional changes in the brain that contribute to the behavioural (clinical) expressions. Some researchers and cognitive behaviourists highlight some positive strengths in people with autism, particularly the mild forms, but overall the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly in the severe forms of manifestation, is perceived as a disease that requires treatment and intervention. To be effective, such interventions require a good understanding of the underlying processes. In this presentation, I will attempt to provide a basic neuroscience primer of the major pathological changes described. Some of them are at the level of synaptic function, that important structure that mediates the transfer of information from one neurone to the other. Another level is that of understanding the basics of the excitation/inhibition balance in regulating the transfer of information in the brain. And finally, at the functional level, ASD has been described as a dysregulation of the connectivity between different regions in the brain, with an increase in the sensitivity of some and a decrease in the strength of others. It is hoped that such a primer can inform the subsequent discussions of the empirical types of intervention in ASD, exemplified by the successful applications of art therapy.

A-2
9:30-10:00 31/03/19 CM
Leah Gipson
在美国,开始艺术治疗之间的对话
以及自闭症患者的观点
Beginning Conversation between Art Therapy in the US
and Perspectives of People with Autism

《在美国,开始艺术治疗之间的对话,以及自闭症患者的观点》将会汇集目前关于艺术治疗中的自闭症和残疾研究中的自闭症的文章。这次讲座将比较艺术治疗中关于自闭症的主流思维方式和自闭症患者和残疾公正学者的新兴观点。通过将这两个主要观点结合在一起,讲座将提出一些影响着社会上的残疾人的问题,来检验文化态度与信仰。讲者将提供歧视自闭症患者(包括暴力)的有害影响的例子,以及残疾人社区为创造社会变革所作出的反应。

Beginning Conversation between Art Therapy in the US and Perspectives of People with Autism will bring together the current writings on autism in art therapy and those in disability studies. The lecture will compare dominant ways of thinking about autism in art therapy with emerging perspectives by people with autism and disability justice scholars. By bringing these two major perspectives together, the lecture will pose questions that examine cultural attitudes and beliefs, which affect people who are disabled by society. The presenter will provide examples of the harmful impacts of discrimination against people with autism, including violence, and examples of disability community responses to create social change.


A-3
10:00-10:30 31/03/19 CM
Estate M. Sokhadze
自闭症谱系障碍的神经调节、神经反馈和感觉整合
Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback and Sensory Integration
in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Estate (ato) M. Sokhadze,博士,美国格林维尔南卡罗莱纳大学医学院研究教授。Sokhadze博士在认知神经科学、临床神经生理学、神经调节和神经反馈在人类心理生理学研究和临床治疗中的应用已有超过25年的经验。擅长应用神经反馈、经颅磁刺激(TMS)、脑电图(EEG)等神经治疗技术对自闭症谱系障碍患者进行功能性诊断和治疗。Sokhadze博士自90年代初以来是AAPB和ISNR(生物反馈和神经反馈学会)的成员,目前是神经反馈和神经调节研究基金会(FNNR)的主席,FNNR是神经反馈和神经调节专业人士的非营利组织,其使命是支持该领域的研究(专注于自闭症和多动症)。
Sokhadze博士曾获得多个神经治疗、神经反馈和应用心理生理学研究奖项,包括应用心理生理学和生物反馈协会(AAPB)杰出科学家奖(2015)、AAPB荣誉院士奖(2019)、Joel Lubar神经治疗贡献奖(2009)和ISNR的Joseph and Ann-Marie Horvat杰出服务奖(2018)。他也是许多期刊文章、书籍章节和国会报告的作者。他与高级助理Manuel Casanova博士合编的新书《自闭症:研究和治疗的神经调节、神经反馈和感觉整合方法》(Autism: Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback and Sensory Integration methods to Research and Treatment)。目前,Sokhadze博士的研究兴趣主要集中在自闭症个体认知和情感非典型性的具体研究以及新型神经治疗干预方法的开发。
Estate (Tato) M. Sokhadze, PhD, is a Research Professor at University of South Carolina School of Medicine in Greenville, USA. Dr. Sokhadze has more than 25 years of experience in application of cognitive neuroscience, clinical neurophysiology, neuromodulation and neurofeedback in human psychophysiology research and clinical treatment. He is specialist in application of neurofeedback, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), EEG mapping and other neurotherapy techniques in functional diagnostic and treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Dr Sokhadze is member of AAPB and ISNR (biofeedback and neurofeedback societies) since early 90s and currently is a President of Foundation for Neurofeedback and Neuromodulation Research (FNNR), non-profit organization of neurofeedback and neuromodulation professionals with the mission of supporting research in this area (focus on autism and ADHD). Dr Sokhadze is recipient of several awards for neurotherapy, neurofeedback and applied psychophysiology research including Association for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback (AAPB) Distinguished Scientist Award (2015), AAPB Honorary fellowship (2019), Joel Lubar Award for contribution to neurotherapy (2009), and ISNR’s Joseph and Ann-Marie Horvat Award for outstanding service (2018). He is author of numerous journal articles, book chapters and congress presentations. The latest book is press that he coedited with his senior associate Dr Manuel Casanova is titled “Autism: Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback and Sensory Integration Approaches to Research and Treatment”. Research interests of Dr. Sokhadze are currently focused on study of specifics of cognitive and emotional atypicality of individuals with autism and development of novel neurotherapeutic intervention methods.